中国畜牧杂志

2022, v.58(07) 21-27

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禽早期胚胎发育的分子机制研究进展
Research Progress on Molecular Mechanism of Poultry Early Embryonic Development

李超;傅高惠;陈慧芳;蔡健锋;刘俊杰;白银山;
LI Chao;FU Gaohui;CHEN Huifang;CAI Jianfeng;LIU Junjie;BAI Yinshan;School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University;

摘要(Abstract):

禽早期胚胎发育是指禽卵子受精后在雌性生殖道内发育的过程,一般需要持续24~26 h。根据耶尔基勒迪及柯查夫(Eyal-Giladi and Kochav,EGK)时期分段标准,归纳为卵子-合子、合子-EGK I和EGK I-EGKX3个经典阶段。禽类早期胚胎在母体内发生多次卵裂,产出后细胞数目可达55000个左右。近几年关于禽早期胚胎发育中母源-合子转换(Maternal-Zygotic Transition,MZT)过程,合子基因组激活(Zygotic Genome Activation,ZGA)时间和分子机制有了新的发现,其中NOTCH和WNT等信号通路以及DLX6、ATA2和ZIC4等母源基因在胚胎早期发育阶段率先被激活,合子基因组开始表达并逐步替代母源物质。禽类作为胚胎发育研究的理想动物模型,揭开其相关分子机制对推动养禽业发展、鸟类胚胎发育和转基因技术等具有重要意义。本文主要围绕禽类卵子发育、卵子受精和合子在母体内发育的主要分子机制进行综述,为禽类早期胚胎发育的研究和发展奠定基础。
The early embryonic development of poultry refer to the process of egg development in the female reproductive tract after fertilization, which generally needs to last for 24-26 h. According to Eyal-Giladi and Kochav(EGK) stage segmentation standard, it can be divided into three typical stages: egg-zygote, zygote-EGK I and EGK I-EGK X. The early embryos of poultry cleave many times in the fallopian tube, and the number of cells in the embryos can reach about 55,000after birth. In recent years, regarding to the process of maternal-zygotic transition Maternal-Zygotic Transition(MZT) of the early embryonic development of poultry, new discoveries have been made on the time and molecular mechanism involved in the activation of Zygotic Genome Activation(ZGA)during, in which signal pathways such as NOTCH and WNT as well as maternal genes such as DLX6, ATA2 and ZIC4 are first activated in early embryonic development, and zygotic genomes begin to transcribe and gradually replace maternal materials. Poultry as an ideal animal model for embryonic development research,revealing its related molecular mechanisms has great significance to promote the development of poultry industry, bird embryo development and transgenic technology. This review mainly focuses on the molecular mechanisms of egg development, egg fertilization and zygote development in the fallopian tube, which lays the foundation of the study and development of early embryonic development of poultry.

关键词(KeyWords): 禽;早期胚胎;卵子受精;分子机制
Poultry;Early embryo;Egg fertilization;Molecular mechanism

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 广东省重点领域研发计划项目(2021B0707010007);; 温氏食品集团股份有限公司技术开发项目(BKH209047)

作者(Authors): 李超;傅高惠;陈慧芳;蔡健锋;刘俊杰;白银山;
LI Chao;FU Gaohui;CHEN Huifang;CAI Jianfeng;LIU Junjie;BAI Yinshan;School of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University;

DOI: 10.19556/j.0258-7033.20210616-05

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