中国畜牧杂志

2020, v.56(02) 110-116

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TMR制作粒度对肉牛增重与瘤胃微生物发酵的影响
Particle Size Distribution Effect of Total Mixed Rations on Growth Performance and Rumen Fermentation in Crossbred Beef Cattle

张娟利;黄乐然;莫放;姚刚;杨开伦;陈如龙;杨红建;
ZHANG Juanli;HUANG Leran;MO Fang;YAO Gang;YANG kailun;CHEN Rulong;YANG Hongjian;State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University;College of Animal Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University;Xinjiang Tianlai Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd;

摘要(Abstract):

为研究不同粒度全混合日粮(TMR)对肉牛增重和瘤胃发酵的影响,试验选取新疆褐牛(♂)与哈萨克牛(♀)杂交一代、体重为(305.6±5.6)kg的公牛70头,随机分为2组,预试期14 d,正试期44 d。日粮为不同搅拌时间的TMR,使用宾州筛进行粒度分布测定。对照组TMR搅拌时间为30 min,平均粒度为7.1 mm;试验组TMR搅拌时间为40 min,平均粒度为6.1 mm。结果表明:与对照组相比,试验组第1层(>19 mm)比例下降了6.3个百分点,第2层(>8 mm)和底层(≤1.18 mm)比例下降了3个百分点(P<0.01);结合剩料粒度分析结果研究发现,虽然延长搅拌时间后没有提高TMR总采食量,但提高了肉牛对TMR中粒度大于8 mm长纤维饲料的进食量,并提高了肉牛育肥全期平均日增重(P<0.05),饲料转化效率提高了12.7%(P=0.01);对TMR及宾州筛各层样品采用体外瘤胃发酵测试结果表明,延长TMR搅拌时间对体外干物质消化率、发酵产气量与产气速率、氨氮和挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)生成量无影响;但随着筛分粒度的下降,总VFA生成量升高(P=0.02),其中乙酸比例下降而丁酸比例升高(P<0.05)。综上所述,通过延长搅拌时间降低TMR粒度虽未能提高采食量,但可促进肉牛生长继而显著提高饲料转化效率,并有利于维持瘤胃微生物的正常发酵功能。
This study was conducted to explore the effect of different particle size distribution in total mixed rations(TMR) on growth performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. Seventy Xinjiang Brown(♂) × Kazak cattle(♀) crossbred beef bulls weighed(305±5.6) kg were randomly divided into two experimental feedlots and fed a same TMR with two different particle size distribution. The experiment period consisted of 14-day adaptation and 44-day data collection. During the feeding period, the ration for control group was mixed in a TMR wagon for 30 min, and the same ration for another group was mixed in the wagon for 40 min. Particle size distribution of both rations before and after feeding were examined using Penn State Particle Separator, average particle size for 30 min and 40 min groups were 7.1 mm and 6.1, respectively. The 40 min in comparison with 30 min group decreased upper sieve particles(>19 mm) by 6.3% and middle sieve(>8 mm) and bottom pan particles(≤1.18 mm) by 3%(P<0.01). The particle distribution above lower sieve(>1.18 mm, <8 mm) was not changed. Although the increase of TMR mixing time did not alter total TMR intake, it increased the intake portion of the lower sieve particles and average daily gain of the crossbred beef cattle(P<0.05), resulting in 12.7 % increase of feed conversion efficiency(P=0.01). TMR particle samples from different sections of the Penn State Particle Separator were fermented in vitro with buffered rumen fluids for 72 h. No difference between 30 min and 40 min group occurred for in vitro dry matter disappearance, cumulative gas production, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids(VFA) production. However, the decrease of particle size significantly increased the total VFA production(P=0.02) in which molar proportion of acetate decreased and the proportion of butyrate increased(P<0.05). In a brief, decreasing the TMR particle size by the prolongation of mixing time does not increase the feed intake, but it can significantly improve feed conversion efficiency and maintain the normal fermentation function of rumen microorganisms.

关键词(KeyWords): TMR搅拌;宾州筛;瘤胃发酵;育肥增重;肉牛
TMR particle size;Penn State Forage Separator;Rumen fermentation;Finishing;Beef cattle

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 新疆褐牛健康养殖技术集成与产业化示范(2017B01001-2)

作者(Authors): 张娟利;黄乐然;莫放;姚刚;杨开伦;陈如龙;杨红建;
ZHANG Juanli;HUANG Leran;MO Fang;YAO Gang;YANG kailun;CHEN Rulong;YANG Hongjian;State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University;College of Animal Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University;Xinjiang Tianlai Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd;

DOI: 10.19556/j.0258-7033.20190517-01

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